Sharma, S. K. and Kumar, Manish and Rohtash, - and Gupta, N. C. and Saraswati, - and Saxena, Mohit and Mandal, T. K. (2014) Characteristics of ambient ammonia over Delhi, India. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 124 (1-2). pp. 67-82. ISSN 0177-7971

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In the present paper, we have characterized the ambient ammonia over Delhi along with other trace gases (NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO) and particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) measured during December 2011 to June 2012. The average mixing ratios of ambient NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were recorded as 21.2 +/- A 5.4, 19.5 +/- A 4.9, 17.4 +/- A 1.4, 1.7 +/- A 0.5 ppb and 1.6 +/- A 0.7 ppm, respectively, during winter, whereas the average mixing ratios of ambient NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were recorded as 20.8 +/- A 4.7, 21.7 +/- A 6.3, 16.8 +/- A 3.1, 2.2 +/- A 0.8 ppb and 1.8 +/- A 0.9 ppm, respectively, during summer. In the present case, non-significant seasonal and diurnal variations of NH3, NO, NO2, SO2 and CO were observed during both the seasons. The average monthly NH3/NH4 (+) ratios varied from 0.28 to 2.56 with an average value of 1.46 in winter. The higher NH3/NH4 (+) ratio (3.5) observed in summer indicates the abundance of NH3 in the atmosphere during summer. The higher fraction of particulate NH4 (+) observed in winter than summer attributes to the conversion of gaseous NH3 into NH4 (+). The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic-related pollutants (NO, NO2 and CO). Surface wind analysis and wind directions also support the roadside traffic and agricultural activities at the nearby area indicating possible major sources of ambient NH3 at the study site

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to M/S IOP Springer Verlag.
Subjects: Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Depositing User: Dr. Rajpal Walke
Date Deposited: 17 Sep 2015 05:53
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2015 05:53

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